Population of CHILE
The Republic of Chile according to the census of 2012 population was 16,634,603 inhabitants, with a density of 23,01 hab / km². Of these, approximately 38% are concentrated in the metropolitan area of Greater Santiago.
Chiles economy is the fifth largest economy in Latin America in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) nominal, and seventh in terms of GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP). Chile has the highest per capita income in Latin America (USD 24,170 GDP per capita PPP and USD 17,047 per capita GDP at nominal prices) and belongs to the category of high-income countries according to the World Bank.
The Chilean economy boasts remarkable levels in competitiveness, economic freedom, financial development, and become the most dynamic economy in Latin America. It also has the most favorable rating of the external debt of the continent
Location of CHILE
The Republic of Chile is in the western part of South America and its territory extends from 17º 30 to 90º South latitude.
It has a continental and insular surface of 756,626 km2 and a length of 4,200 km., Approximately, excluding the Antarctic.
Its average width is 177 km, with a continental minimum of 90 km.,
It also includes Easter Island or Rapa Nui, San Felix, San Ambrosio, Salas y Gómez, in addition to the Juan Fernandez archipelago, which covers 200 miles of territorial sea.
Its neighboring countries are Peru, Bolivia and Argentina. The Pacific Ocean marks its natural boundary to the west.
History of CHILE
Chiles history is usually divided into twelve periods ranging from the beginning of human settlement in the territory of present Chile to present
The pre-Hispanic period corresponds to the history of the different Amerindian ethnic groups in the territory, ranging from about 14,800 a year. C. until the arrival of the Spaniards. From 1492, the European explorations in the Americas began. In 1520 Ferdinand Magellan and his expedition were the first Europeans to arrive in Chile in the south through the strait that now bears his name, and Diego de Almagro in 1536 commanded an expedition to Aconcagua Valley and northern Chile today.
The third period corresponds to the Spanish conquest, which lasted between 1536 and 1598 with the War of Arauco, during which the Spaniards were nearly exterminated by the Mapuche Indians. The colonial period covering more than two centuries, between 1598 and 1808, a period marked by the establishment of colonial institutions.
The so-called period of independence ran from the deposition of the Spanish governor, Garcia Carrasco, in 1810 to exile the Liberator Bernardo OHiggins in 1823 was marked by various battles against the royalists, who managed to briefly reconquer the country, and problems in his government. Once the countrys independence was achieved, it followed by a period of organization of the Chilean state, between 1823 and 1830, which saw three events of rulers and two constitutions.
Between 1831 and 1861, it took place the period of the conservative Republic. It was marked by the entry into force of the 1833 Constitution established by Diego Portales, with a strong, centralized government. Despite some attempts at subversion, institutional stability was maintained and the country experienced economic prosperity.
The eighth period, known as the liberal republic, which lasted from 1861-1891, was characterized by greater political stability and allowed an extension of the territory to the south and the north.
Since the civil war of 1891, began the parliamentary republic, which lasted until the promulgation of the Constitution of 1925. The National Congress dominated the political and the president became a figure virtually no authority. The country became urbanized and the first unions were created.
The presidential Republic marked a change in institutions, with the 1925 Constitution, until the coup of 1973. Three parties dominated politics: the radicals, the Christian Democrats and the Socialists. Many public companies were created in this period. His final was marked by the triumph of the left and socialist ideas.
After the coup of September 11, 1973 that overthrew President Salvador Allende, a dictatorial military regime came to power with a junta led by General Augusto Pinochet. Tens of thousands of opponents were arrested, tortured or killed, even abroad, while others were expelled or condemned to exile. With the help of the Chicago Boys, Pinochet carried out a liberal economic policy, and a new constitution was adopted in 1980.
Finally, the transition to democracy is the current period starting from 1990, to becoming president Patricio Aylwin and is characterized by a strong presidential protected by the 1980 constitution.