Guide of Nazca, PERU

Information about Nazca

The Peruvian city of Nazca is the capital of the province of Nazca, located on the right bank of the river Aja (tributary of the Rio Grande). Nazca is a city very active due to the influx of tourists visiting daily the ancient Nazca Lines and agricultural and commercial development is in the area.

Founded by the Viceroy Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza, Marquess of Cañete in 1591, Nazca was also known for producing a grape brandy-similar to pisco intended for consumption of slaves and the local people called born.

The people of Nazca was created on August 29, 1821, then on 2 July 1855 was elevated to the rank of district, becoming then a province on January 23, 1941.
The November 12, 1996, an earthquake of 6.4 with epicenter at sea (Marcona), hit seriously in the city of Nazca, despite its magnitude in the city only 7 people died (out of 17), but More than 8,000 buildings collapsed completely and 1600 people were injured.

The district Nasca and the District of Vista Alegre form a single urban core to be both practically united into town (30,000 inhabitants approx), which does not happen with the other districts of the province.

Currently Nazca is a thriving tourist center of international renown, besides the development of trade and services have turned the city into one of the main cities in southern Peru, Nazca has regained its beauty that has always characterized.

History of Nazca

There are two versions of its Spanish foundation. According to writings of chroniclers, it was founded on October 28, 1548, commissioned by Pedro de la Gasca peacemaker, by Alonso de Mendoza. The other version says that founded by Viceroy Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza, Marquess of Cañete, in 1591.

Nazca was also known for producing a grape brandy-similar to pisco intended for consumption of slaves, and the locals called Nasca. It also said there was the first grape brandy (pisco) at Hacienda Cahuachi, by an African American slave owners of this estate.

Regional History of Ica colonial era, Ti (1964), Alberto Rossel Castro, chapter VII, entitled colonial history in the Nasca Valley states that before the conquest, the Nasca Valley was known by the name of Cajamarca, as recorded titles deeds, the magistrates and royal decrees of the time, which begin with the lines: the people of the Nasca Caxamarca

He notes that the division of Caxamarca included three large Biases: Nasca and Palpa Kollao. Bias Naska that stretched across the streams of Aja and Kopara, in the words of today, White Lands and Las Trancas.

Collao the bias corresponded to the valley of Ingenio and Palpa Bias was between the gorges of the Rio Grande and the Viscas.

Ayllus thirteen states that made up the Bias Nasca, of which only Amoto, Copara, Poruma (poroma) Cantallo, Siamese and Pallas ayllus, which belonged to the charge of Captain Pedro Gutiérrez de Mendoza counted.

The Collana ayllu was the main components boasted of belonging to the royal blood of the Incas in Cusco. In this ayllu belonged Nasca dynasty, whose family aposentaba, the arrival of the Spaniards, the Inca town of Cajamarca, whose ruins are located at the exit of the current city and is known by the name of Los Paredones .

Rossel Castro said that the chiefs or principal chiefs of Repartimiento of Cajamarca, 1546 were Don Francisco and Don Alonso Rimansa Nanaska son of Anqueada this, landowners and Caxamarca Collao. This was stated both at the first Ordinary Mayor, Don Nicolas de Rivera el Viejo on 17 June 1546 in document contained in the file Property Law, Leg. 3 Notebook 83, 1546, at the National Archives.

At first curaca or cacique, Francisco Nanaska, happens in the chiefdom of Cajamarca, his legitimate son Nanaska Don Garcia (Garcia Salcedo encomendero Godson, then Illacuchi married Beatriz, daughter of curaca or chief of Lurin Ica Aquije) who in his will dated November 4, 1569, located by the P. Rossel Castro at the National Archives, said that has a legitimate son named Garcia Nanaska, two years old, at which delegates the power to govern the chieftainship in his brother Don Pedro Vilcanchana.

The March 13, 1582, before the Notary Public Garcia de Cordova, and contains the name of Garcia Nanaska, at the age of 19, together with the other representatives of the distribution, as Don Luis Vininanchana, Fernando capcha, Don Baltasar Camote and Don Francisco Michilla, demonstrating, said Rossel, Nanaska Don Garcia had already taken over the chiefdom or chiefdom.

On the foundation of the colonial town of Santiago de la Nasca, he relates that Don Garcia Nanaska father, Don Garcia Nanaska son, were the real benefactors of the valley of Cajamarca, who donated their property to trustees for the formation of colonial town on the site Naska of bias, giving the name of Santiago Apostle of Nasca, where indigenous others were reduced Valley and the seats gave the Spaniards the year 1549, perhaps dated July 25, the feast day of the saint patron of the town.

On the foundation of the Convent of San Agustin (place from about the first block of the street Arica, the fifth block of the right street or Lima, and the neighborhood of the cans first block of Grau and Land bank of the White River) refers to as Don Garcia Nanaska had instituted a chaplaincy at the altar of St. Paul with part of his property, Don Garcia Nanaska son, following the example of his father, his estates taxed census for the Augustinians of Lima parents, provided these say two hundred masses for his soul and his body was buried in the Church of St. James of Nasca. Thus, on May 16 they asked the Augustinian implementing the will of the chief and the license to build the church of the Convent of the Augustinians in the Nazca Valley, the construction of which took place the year 1591.

Continues the author narrating the colonial town of Nasca was elevated to Villa and the terms specified in Acari, Anan-Huayurí, Urin, Huayurí, Palpa and Ingenio, in times of Viceroy Luis de Velasco and Castile, Conde de Nieva, and the same time of the founding of the town of Valverde de Ica which was held on July 17, 1563.

He says he was the chief García Nanaska father, who gave the neighbors seat and Spanish inhabitants, Christians servers Viceroy soldiers to a house and an orchard, according to the rules given by the King from Spain. This seat was in the same place where the present city of Nasca.

The people of Nazca was created on August 29, 1821, then on 2 July 1855 it was elevated to the rank of district, becoming a province on January 23, 1941.

Nasca, is as it is called today, is a dry, why in times of the Incas a formidable work of hydraulic engineering, trayento water heights, underground branches called aqueducts, serving until today was held , to irrigate farmland and for household use.

In colonial history, there were estates-model as San Juan del Ingenio and San Javier property of the Jesuit College of Cusco, where jobs cut were made of wood, vine cultivation, processing of wine to the Catholic religion, and two beautiful churches located in these places. In 1767 expulsion edict of King Charles III of Spain, these properties were available to the Crown, and the property of an encomendero.

In times of the Republic, were given in use by the Peruvian Congress in 1828, the French-Argentine privateer Hipólito Bouchard, reward and thanks for services rendered to the Peruvian state. Bouchard founded a sugar mill that called good luck, where he was killed by a mob of slaves led by afroanasqueño Adelphus Bernales, who then reportedly violated his wife on January 4, 1837. After 120 years, June 1962, a tomb with the initials HB in the catacombs of the Church of San Javier found. On July 6 of that year, the remains were exhumed by a joint commission of the Peruvian Navy and Argentina, and repatriated to Buenos Aires aboard the cruise La Argentina. Today rest in the Pantheon of Buenos Aires.

On the death of Bouchard these farms entered the inventory of assets of the fledgling and nascent republic, becoming an economic burden on the national treasury, the only cause losses. It was sold by the government of Jose Rufino Echenique, the Ica knight Don Domingo Elias and Carbajo, that it became the model farms, where first cultivated cotton industrially, and there was pisco and wine for export in a Business exemplary work.

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