History of ALEMANIA
The first inhabitants of the territory occupied by Germany today were Celtic and Germanic nomadic tribes. Under the domain of Emperor Augustus, the Romans began the conquest of German lands around 12 BC. and they reached the Rhine and the Danube. His attempts to expand his territory further east were thwarted in the year 9, when Roman General Publio Quintilio Varo lost three legions (some 20,000 men) in the bloody battle of the Teutoburg Forest. The Germanic forces were headed by Arminio, son of a local chief who had been captured and taken to Rome as a hostage. There he adopted Roman citizenship and received military education that would allow him to strategically defeat Varo.
For most of its history, Germany was a set of semi-independent principalities and city-states. In fact, it was not a nation-state until 1871.